The results of the previous tests may strongly suggest a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma, but often the only way to be sure of this is a biopsy.

During a biopsy, some cells or tissue are taken from the affected area of the bile duct and are then examined under a microscope. A biopsy may be carried out during an ERCP or PTC.

CT or ultrasound may be used at the same time, to make sure that the biopsy is taken from the right place.

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